DICOM Standard Browser

by Innolitics

CR ImageCIOD
PatientMModule - Patient
Clinical Trial SubjectUModule - Patient
General StudyMModule - Study
Patient StudyUModule - Study
Clinical Trial StudyUModule - Study
General SeriesMModule - Series
CR SeriesMModule - Series
Clinical Trial SeriesUModule - Series
General EquipmentMModule - Equipment
General ImageMModule - Image
General ReferenceUModule - Image
Image PixelMModule - Image
(0028,0002) Samples per Pixel1Unsigned Short
(0028,0004) Photometric Interpretation1Code String
(0028,0010) Rows1Unsigned Short
(0028,0011) Columns1Unsigned Short
(0028,0100) Bits Allocated1Unsigned Short
(0028,0101) Bits Stored1Unsigned Short
(0028,0102) High Bit1Unsigned Short
(0028,0103) Pixel Representation1Unsigned Short
(0028,0006) Planar Configuration1CUnsigned Short
(0028,0034) Pixel Aspect Ratio1CInteger String
(0028,0106) Smallest Image Pixel Value3US or SS
(0028,0107) Largest Image Pixel Value3US or SS
(0028,1101) Red Palette Color Lookup Table Descriptor1CUS or SS
(0028,1102) Green Palette Color Lookup Table Descriptor1CUS or SS
(0028,1103) Blue Palette Color Lookup Table Descriptor1CUS or SS
(0028,1201) Red Palette Color Lookup Table Data1COther Word String
(0028,1202) Green Palette Color Lookup Table Data1COther Word String
(0028,1203) Blue Palette Color Lookup Table Data1COther Word String
(0028,2000) ICC Profile3Other Byte String
(0028,2002) Color Space3Code String
(7FE0,0010) Pixel Data1COB or OW
(0028,7FE0) Pixel Data Provider URL1CURL
(0028,0121) Pixel Padding Range Limit1CUS or SS
Contrast/BolusCModule - Image
Display ShutterUModule - Image
DeviceUModule - Image
SpecimenUModule - Image
CR ImageMModule - Image
Overlay PlaneUModule - Image
Modality LUTUModule - Image
VOI LUTUModule - Image
SOP CommonMModule - Image
Common Instance ReferenceUModule - Image
CT ImageCIOD
MR ImageCIOD
NM ImageCIOD
US ImageCIOD
US Multi-frame ImageCIOD
SC ImageCIOD
Multi-frame Single Bit SC ImageCIOD
Multi-frame Grayscale Byte SC ImageCIOD
Multi-frame Grayscale Word SC ImageCIOD
Multi-frame True Color SC ImageCIOD
X-Ray Angiographic ImageCIOD
XRF ImageCIOD
RT ImageCIOD
RT DoseCIOD
RT Structure SetCIOD
RT PlanCIOD
PET ImageCIOD
Digital X-Ray ImageCIOD
Digital Mammography X-Ray ImageCIOD
Digital Intra-Oral X-Ray ImageCIOD
RT Beams Treatment RecordCIOD
RT Brachy Treatment RecordCIOD
RT Treatment Summary RecordCIOD
VL Endoscopic ImageCIOD
VL Microscopic ImageCIOD
VL Slide-Coordinates Microscopic ImageCIOD
VL Photographic ImageCIOD
Video Endoscopic ImageCIOD
Video Microscopic ImageCIOD
Video Photographic ImageCIOD
VL Whole Slide Microscopy ImageCIOD
Grayscale Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Color Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Pseudo-Color Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Blending Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Basic Structured DisplayCIOD
XA/XRF Grayscale Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Advanced Blending Presentation StateCIOD
Basic Voice AudioCIOD
12-Lead ECGCIOD
General ECGCIOD
Ambulatory ECGCIOD
HemodynamicCIOD
Basic Cardiac EPCIOD
Arterial Pulse WaveformCIOD
Respiratory WaveformCIOD
General Audio WaveformCIOD
Basic Text SRCIOD
Enhanced SRCIOD
Comprehensive SRCIOD
Key Object Selection DocumentCIOD
Mammography CAD SRCIOD
Chest CAD SRCIOD
Procedure LogCIOD
X-Ray Radiation Dose SRCIOD
Spectacle Prescription ReportCIOD
Colon CAD SRCIOD
Macular Grid Thickness and Volume ReportCIOD
Implantation Plan SR DocumentCIOD
Comprehensive 3D SRCIOD
Radiopharmaceutical Radiation Dose SRCIOD
Extensible SRCIOD
Acquisition Context SRCIOD
Simplified Adult Echo SRCIOD
Patient Radiation Dose Structured ReportCIOD
Enhanced MR ImageCIOD
MR SpectroscopyCIOD
Enhanced MR Color ImageCIOD
Raw DataCIOD
Enhanced CT ImageCIOD
Spatial RegistrationCIOD
Deformable Spatial RegistrationCIOD
Spatial FiducialsCIOD
Ophthalmic Photography 8 Bit ImageCIOD
Ophthalmic Photography 16 Bit ImageCIOD
Stereometric RelationshipCIOD
Hanging ProtocolCIOD
Encapsulated PDFCIOD
Encapsulated CDACIOD
Real World Value MappingCIOD
Enhanced X-Ray Angiographic ImageCIOD
Enhanced X-Ray RF ImageCIOD
RT Ion PlanCIOD
RT Ion Beams Treatment RecordCIOD
SegmentationCIOD
Ophthalmic Tomography ImageCIOD
X-Ray 3D Angiographic ImageCIOD
X-Ray 3D Craniofacial ImageCIOD
Breast Tomosynthesis ImageCIOD
Enhanced PET ImageCIOD
Surface SegmentationCIOD
Color PaletteCIOD
Enhanced US VolumeCIOD
Lensometry MeasurementsCIOD
Autorefraction MeasurementsCIOD
Keratometry MeasurementsCIOD
Subjective Refraction MeasurementsCIOD
Visual Acuity MeasurementsCIOD
Ophthalmic Axial MeasurementsCIOD
Intraocular Lens CalculationsCIOD
Generic Implant TemplateCIOD
Implant Assembly TemplateCIOD
Implant Template GroupCIOD
RT Beams Delivery InstructionCIOD
Ophthalmic Visual Field Static Perimetry MeasurementsCIOD
Intravascular OCT ImageCIOD
Ophthalmic Thickness MapCIOD
Surface Scan MeshCIOD
Surface Scan Point CloudCIOD
Legacy Converted Enhanced CT ImageCIOD
Legacy Converted Enhanced MR ImageCIOD
Legacy Converted Enhanced PET ImageCIOD
Corneal Topography MapCIOD
Breast Projection X-Ray ImageCIOD
Parametric MapCIOD
Wide Field Ophthalmic Photography Stereographic Projection ImageCIOD
Wide Field Ophthalmic Photography 3D Coordinates ImageCIOD
Tractography ResultsCIOD
RT Brachy Application Setup Delivery InstructionCIOD
Planar MPR Volumetric Presentation StateCIOD
Volume Rendering Volumetric Presentation StateCIOD
Content Assessment ResultsCIOD
Table CT Performed Procedure ProtocolCIOD
CT Defined Procedure ProtocolCIOD
Protocol ApprovalCIOD
Ophthalmic Optical Coherence Tomography En Face ImageCIOD
Ophthalmic Optical Coherence Tomography B-scan Volume AnalysisCIOD

Built with by Innolitics, a team of medical imaging software developers.

Data synced with official DICOM standard on 25 September 2017. The DICOM Standard is under continuous maintenance, and the current official version is available at http://dicom.nema.org/. DICOM Parts 3 and 6, © NEMA. Please note that the most recent PDF version of the standard is the official reference, and should checked when making technical decisions.

Pixel Padding Range Limit Attribute

Tag(0028,0121)
TypeConditionally Required (1C)
KeywordPixelPaddingRangeLimit
Value Multiplicity1
Value RepresentationUS or SS

Pixel value that represents one limit (inclusive) of a range of padding values used together with Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) as defined in the General Equipment Module. See Section C.7.5.1.1.2 for further explanation.

Required if pixel padding is to be defined as a range rather than a single value.

Note

  1. The Value Representation of this Attribute is determined by the value of Pixel Representation (0028,0103).

  2. Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) is also required when this Attribute is present.

General Equipment Module

C.7.5.1 General Equipment Module

Table C.7-8 specifies the Attributes that identify and describe the piece of equipment that produced a Series of Composite Instances.

Table C.7-8. General Equipment Module Attributes

Attribute Name

Tag

Type

Attribute Description

Manufacturer

(0008,0070)

2

Manufacturer of the equipment that produced the composite instances.

Institution Name

(0008,0080)

3

Institution where the equipment that produced the composite instances is located.

Institution Address

(0008,0081)

3

Mailing address of the institution where the equipment that produced the composite instances is located.

Station Name

(0008,1010)

3

User defined name identifying the machine that produced the composite instances.

Institutional Department Name

(0008,1040)

3

Department in the institution where the equipment that produced the composite instances is located.

Manufacturer's Model Name

(0008,1090)

3

Manufacturer's model name of the equipment that produced the composite instances.

Device Serial Number

(0018,1000)

3

Manufacturer's serial number of the equipment that produced the composite instances.

Note

This identifier corresponds to the device that actually created the images, such as a CR plate reader or a CT console, and may not be sufficient to identify all of the equipment in the imaging chain, such as the generator or gantry or plate.

Software Versions

(0018,1020)

3

Manufacturer's designation of software version of the equipment that produced the composite instances. See Section C.7.5.1.1.3.

Gantry ID

(0018,1008)

3

Identifier of the gantry or positioner.

UDI Sequence

(0018,100A)

3

Unique Device Identifier (UDI) of the entire equipment. For example, the entire CT Scanner.

Note

  1. Multiple items may be present if the entire equipment has UDIs issued by different Issuing Authorities.

  2. Multiple items may be present if multiple pieces of equipment were involved in the creation of this instance, e.g., the DR plate and the DR reader.

  3. his is not intended to contain the UDIs of the components of the equipment, such as the x-ray tube of the CT scanner. Such information is stored elsewhere and accessible using the UDI of the entire equipment and a date.

One or more Items are permitted in this Sequence.

>Include Table 10.29-1 “UDI Macro Attributes”

Spatial Resolution

(0018,1050)

3

The inherent limiting resolution in mm of the acquisition equipment for high contrast objects for the data gathering and reconstruction technique chosen. If variable across the images of the series, the value at the image center.

Date of Last Calibration

(0018,1200)

3

Date when the image acquisition device calibration was last changed in any way. Multiple entries may be used for additional calibrations at other times. See Section C.7.5.1.1.1 for further explanation.

Time of Last Calibration

(0018,1201)

3

Time when the image acquisition device calibration was last changed in any way. Multiple entries may be used. See Section C.7.5.1.1.1 for further explanation.

Pixel Padding Value

(0028,0120)

1C

Single pixel value or one limit (inclusive) of a range of pixel values used in an image to pad to rectangular format or to signal background that may be suppressed. See Section C.7.5.1.1.2 for further explanation.

Required if Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) is present and either Pixel Data (7FE0,0010) or Pixel Data Provider URL (0028,7FE0) is present. May be present otherwise only if Pixel Data (7FE0,0010) or Pixel Data Provider URL (0028,7FE0) is present.

Note

  1. The Value Representation of this Attribute is determined by the value of Pixel Representation (0028,0103).

  2. This Attribute is not used in Presentation State Instances; there is no means in a Presentation State to "override" any Pixel Padding Value specified in the referenced images.

  3. This Attribute does apply to RT Dose and Segmentation instances, since they include Pixel Data.

  4. This Attribute does not apply when Float Pixel Data (7FE0,0008) or Double Float Pixel Data (7FE0,0009) are used instead of Pixel Data (7FE0,0010); Float Pixel Padding Value (0028,0122) or Double Float Pixel Padding Value (0028,0123), respectively, are used instead, and defined at the Image, not the Equipment, level.


C.7.5.1.1 General Equipment Attribute Descriptions

Note

The attributes Manufacturer (0008,0070), Manufacturer's Model Name (0008,1090) and Device Serial Number (0018,1000) are intended to be a primary identification of the system that produces the data (e.g., modality or workstation application providing the content of the SOP Instance) and not the identification of the component that encodes the SOP Instance (e.g., a commonly used DICOM encoding toolkit).

C.7.5.1.1.1 Date of Last Calibration, Time of Last Calibration

Date of Last Calibration (0018,1200) and Time of Last Calibration (0018,1201) are used to convey the date and time of calibration. The Attribute Date of Last Calibration (0018,1200) may be supported alone, however, Time of Last Calibration (0018,1201) Attribute has no meaning unless Attribute Date of Last Calibration (0018,1200) is also supported. The order for each Attribute shall be from the oldest date/time to the most recent date/time. When the Attributes are both supported they shall be provided as pairs.

C.7.5.1.1.2 Pixel Padding Value and Pixel Padding Range Limit

Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) is used to pad grayscale images (those with a Photometric Interpretation of MONOCHROME1 or MONOCHROME2) to rectangular format. The native format of some images is not rectangular. It is common for devices with this format to pad the images to the rectangular format required by the DICOM Standard with a specific pixel value that is not contained in the native image. Further, when resampling, such as after spatial registration, padding may need to be used to fill previously non-existent pixels.

Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) and Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) are also used to identify pixels to be excluded from the normal grayscale rendering pipeline for other reasons, such as suppression of background air. Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) is defined in the Image Pixel Module.

Note

  1. The "native image" is that which is being padded to the required rectangular format, e.g., the area within the circular reconstruction perimeter of a CT image, or the subset of the rectangular area that contains useful image information.

  2. The pixel padding value is explicitly described in order to prevent display applications from taking it into account when determining the dynamic range of an image, since the Pixel Padding Value will be outside the range between the minimum and maximum values of the pixels in the native image

  3. No pixels in the native image will have a value equal to Pixel Padding Value.

Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) specifies either a single value of this padding value, or when combined with Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121), a range of values (inclusive) that are padding.

The values of Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) and Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) shall be valid values within the constraints defined by Bits Allocated (0028,0100), Bits Stored (0028,0101), and High Bit (0028,0102).

The padding value shall correspond to a value in the original stored pixel data, before the Modality LUT Transformation or any other transformations are applied.

Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) and Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) shall not be present when padding is performed but the pixel value used for padding does occur in the native image.

If Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) is MONOCHROME2, Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) shall be less than (closer to or equal to the minimum possible pixel value) or equal to Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121). If Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) is MONOCHROME1, Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) shall be greater than (closer to or equal to the maximum possible pixel value) or equal to Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121).

Note

  1. When the relationship between pixel value and X-Ray Intensity is unknown, it is recommended that the following values be used to pad with black when the image is unsigned:

    • 0 if Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) is MONOCHROME2.

    • 2Bits Stored - 1 if Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) is MONOCHROME1.

    and when the image is signed:

    • -2Bits Stored-1 if Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) is MONOCHROME2.

    • 2Bits Stored-1 - 1 if Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) is MONOCHROME1.

  2. For projection radiography, when the relationship between pixel value and X-Ray Intensity is known (for example as defined by Pixel Intensity Relationship (0028,1040) and Pixel Intensity Relationship Sign (0028,1041)), it is recommended that a pixel value equivalent to, or rendered similarly to, air (least X-Ray absorbance) be used for padding. However, if such a value may occur in the native image, the Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) Attribute itself should not be present.

    E.g., for an XRF image obtained with an image intensifier, if air is black then a padded perimeter, if any, should also appear black. Typically though, if unpadded, this area would be collimated with a circular collimator, in which case the pixels would appear natively as white (greatest X-Ray absorbance) and a circular shutter would be necessary to neutralize them as black. Whether collimated areas are detected and treated as padded, or neutralized with shutters is at the discretion of the application. See also the Display Shutter Module Section C.7.6.11.

  3. The conditional requirement for the Pixel Padding Value Range Limit (0028,0121) in the Image Pixel Module means that it shall not be present unless Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) is also present.

  4. The range of values to be suppressed between Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) and Pixel Padding Value Range Limit (0028,0121) is specified as being inclusive, that is the values themselves as well as all values between are suppressed.

  5. When Pixel Padding Value Range Limit (0028,0121) is present, but not supported by a rendering application, the constraint that Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) is closest to the "blackest" value, which is typically the most frequently occurring background pixel, will most often result in an acceptable display, permitting "backward compatibility" in the majority of cases.

When modifying equipment changes the pixel padding value in the image, it shall change the values of Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) and Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121), if present. If modifying equipment changes the pixel padding values in the image to values present in the native image, the attribute Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) and Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) shall be removed.

Note

  1. For example, if a CT image containing signed values from -1024 to 3191 and a Pixel Padding Value of -2000 and a Rescale Intercept of 0 is converted to an unsigned image with a Rescale Intercept of -1024 by adding 1024 to all pixels and clipping all more negative pixels to 0, then the padding pixels will be indistinguishable from some of the modified native image pixels, and hence Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) needs to be removed.

  2. If the modification involves lossy compression, which may result in changes to the pixel values, then the application of Pixel Padding Value and Pixel Padding Range Limit may result in a different appearance, and hence these attributes may need different values also.

C.7.5.1.1.3 Software Versions

Software Versions (0018,1020) is a multi-valued attribute. For equipment that is composed of several components, it may be used to identify the name and version for each of those components. This may also include the identifier and version of libraries or configuration files that significantly affect the production of the SOP Instance.

Section C.7.5.1.1.2

C.7.5.1.1.2 Pixel Padding Value and Pixel Padding Range Limit

Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) is used to pad grayscale images (those with a Photometric Interpretation of MONOCHROME1 or MONOCHROME2) to rectangular format. The native format of some images is not rectangular. It is common for devices with this format to pad the images to the rectangular format required by the DICOM Standard with a specific pixel value that is not contained in the native image. Further, when resampling, such as after spatial registration, padding may need to be used to fill previously non-existent pixels.

Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) and Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) are also used to identify pixels to be excluded from the normal grayscale rendering pipeline for other reasons, such as suppression of background air. Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) is defined in the Image Pixel Module.

Note

  1. The "native image" is that which is being padded to the required rectangular format, e.g., the area within the circular reconstruction perimeter of a CT image, or the subset of the rectangular area that contains useful image information.

  2. The pixel padding value is explicitly described in order to prevent display applications from taking it into account when determining the dynamic range of an image, since the Pixel Padding Value will be outside the range between the minimum and maximum values of the pixels in the native image

  3. No pixels in the native image will have a value equal to Pixel Padding Value.

Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) specifies either a single value of this padding value, or when combined with Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121), a range of values (inclusive) that are padding.

The values of Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) and Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) shall be valid values within the constraints defined by Bits Allocated (0028,0100), Bits Stored (0028,0101), and High Bit (0028,0102).

The padding value shall correspond to a value in the original stored pixel data, before the Modality LUT Transformation or any other transformations are applied.

Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) and Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) shall not be present when padding is performed but the pixel value used for padding does occur in the native image.

If Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) is MONOCHROME2, Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) shall be less than (closer to or equal to the minimum possible pixel value) or equal to Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121). If Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) is MONOCHROME1, Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) shall be greater than (closer to or equal to the maximum possible pixel value) or equal to Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121).

Note

  1. When the relationship between pixel value and X-Ray Intensity is unknown, it is recommended that the following values be used to pad with black when the image is unsigned:

    • 0 if Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) is MONOCHROME2.

    • 2Bits Stored - 1 if Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) is MONOCHROME1.

    and when the image is signed:

    • -2Bits Stored-1 if Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) is MONOCHROME2.

    • 2Bits Stored-1 - 1 if Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) is MONOCHROME1.

  2. For projection radiography, when the relationship between pixel value and X-Ray Intensity is known (for example as defined by Pixel Intensity Relationship (0028,1040) and Pixel Intensity Relationship Sign (0028,1041)), it is recommended that a pixel value equivalent to, or rendered similarly to, air (least X-Ray absorbance) be used for padding. However, if such a value may occur in the native image, the Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) Attribute itself should not be present.

    E.g., for an XRF image obtained with an image intensifier, if air is black then a padded perimeter, if any, should also appear black. Typically though, if unpadded, this area would be collimated with a circular collimator, in which case the pixels would appear natively as white (greatest X-Ray absorbance) and a circular shutter would be necessary to neutralize them as black. Whether collimated areas are detected and treated as padded, or neutralized with shutters is at the discretion of the application. See also the Display Shutter Module Section C.7.6.11.

  3. The conditional requirement for the Pixel Padding Value Range Limit (0028,0121) in the Image Pixel Module means that it shall not be present unless Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) is also present.

  4. The range of values to be suppressed between Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) and Pixel Padding Value Range Limit (0028,0121) is specified as being inclusive, that is the values themselves as well as all values between are suppressed.

  5. When Pixel Padding Value Range Limit (0028,0121) is present, but not supported by a rendering application, the constraint that Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) is closest to the "blackest" value, which is typically the most frequently occurring background pixel, will most often result in an acceptable display, permitting "backward compatibility" in the majority of cases.

When modifying equipment changes the pixel padding value in the image, it shall change the values of Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) and Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121), if present. If modifying equipment changes the pixel padding values in the image to values present in the native image, the attribute Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) and Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) shall be removed.

Note

  1. For example, if a CT image containing signed values from -1024 to 3191 and a Pixel Padding Value of -2000 and a Rescale Intercept of 0 is converted to an unsigned image with a Rescale Intercept of -1024 by adding 1024 to all pixels and clipping all more negative pixels to 0, then the padding pixels will be indistinguishable from some of the modified native image pixels, and hence Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) needs to be removed.

  2. If the modification involves lossy compression, which may result in changes to the pixel values, then the application of Pixel Padding Value and Pixel Padding Range Limit may result in a different appearance, and hence these attributes may need different values also.