Computed Radiography ImageCIOD
Nuclear Medicine ImageCIOD
Ultrasound ImageCIOD
Ultrasound Multi-frame ImageCIOD
Secondary Capture ImageCIOD
Multi-frame Single Bit Secondary Capture ImageCIOD
Multi-frame Grayscale Byte Secondary Capture ImageCIOD
Multi-frame Grayscale Word Secondary Capture ImageCIOD
Multi-frame True Color Secondary Capture ImageCIOD
X-Ray Angiographic ImageCIOD
X-Ray Radiofluoroscopic ImageCIOD
RT Structure SetCIOD
Positron Emission Tomography ImageCIOD
Digital X-Ray ImageCIOD
Digital Mammography X-Ray ImageCIOD
Digital Intra-Oral X-Ray ImageCIOD
RT Beams Treatment RecordCIOD
RT Brachy Treatment RecordCIOD
RT Treatment Summary RecordCIOD
VL Endoscopic ImageCIOD
VL Microscopic ImageCIOD
VL Slide-Coordinates Microscopic ImageCIOD
VL Photographic ImageCIOD
Video Endoscopic ImageCIOD
Video Microscopic ImageCIOD
Video Photographic ImageCIOD
VL Whole Slide Microscopy ImageCIOD
Real-Time Video Endoscopic ImageCIOD
Real-Time Video Photographic ImageCIOD
Dermoscopic Photography ImageCIOD
Grayscale Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Color Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Pseudo-Color Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Blending Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Basic Structured DisplayCIOD
XA/XRF Grayscale Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Advanced Blending Presentation StateCIOD
Variable Modality LUT Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Basic Voice Audio WaveformCIOD
Ambulatory ECGCIOD
Hemodynamic WaveformCIOD
Basic Cardiac Electrophysiology WaveformCIOD
Arterial Pulse WaveformCIOD
Respiratory WaveformCIOD
General Audio WaveformCIOD
Real-Time Audio WaveformCIOD
Routine Scalp ElectroencephalogramCIOD
Sleep ElectroencephalogramCIOD
Multi-channel Respiratory WaveformCIOD
Body Position WaveformCIOD
General 32-bit ECGCIOD
Basic Text SRCIOD
Enhanced SRCIOD
Comprehensive SRCIOD
Key Object Selection DocumentCIOD
Mammography CAD SRCIOD
Procedure LogCIOD
X-Ray Radiation Dose SRCIOD
Spectacle Prescription ReportCIOD
Macular Grid Thickness and Volume ReportCIOD
Implantation Plan SR DocumentCIOD
Comprehensive 3D SRCIOD
Radiopharmaceutical Radiation Dose SRCIOD
Extensible SRCIOD
Acquisition Context SRCIOD
Simplified Adult Echo SRCIOD
Patient Radiation Dose SRCIOD
Planned Imaging Agent Administration SRCIOD
Performed Imaging Agent Administration SRCIOD
Rendition Selection DocumentCIOD
Enhanced X-Ray Radiation Dose SRCIOD
Enhanced MR ImageCIOD
MR SpectroscopyCIOD
Enhanced MR Color ImageCIOD
Raw DataCIOD
Enhanced CT ImageCIOD
Spatial RegistrationCIOD
Deformable Spatial RegistrationCIOD
Spatial FiducialsCIOD
Ophthalmic Photography 8 Bit ImageCIOD
Ophthalmic Photography 16 Bit ImageCIOD
Stereometric RelationshipCIOD
Hanging ProtocolCIOD
Encapsulated PDFCIOD
Encapsulated CDACIOD
Real World Value MappingCIOD
Enhanced XA ImageCIOD
Enhanced XRF ImageCIOD
RT Ion Beams Treatment RecordCIOD
Ophthalmic Tomography ImageCIOD
X-Ray 3D Angiographic ImageCIOD
X-Ray 3D Craniofacial ImageCIOD
Breast Tomosynthesis ImageCIOD
Enhanced PET ImageCIOD
Surface SegmentationCIOD
Color PaletteCIOD
Enhanced US VolumeCIOD
Lensometry MeasurementsCIOD
Autorefraction MeasurementsCIOD
Keratometry MeasurementsCIOD
Subjective Refraction MeasurementsCIOD
Visual Acuity MeasurementsCIOD
Ophthalmic Axial MeasurementsCIOD
Intraocular Lens CalculationsCIOD
Generic Implant TemplateCIOD
Generic Implant Template DescriptionMModule - Implant Template
Generic Implant Template 2D DrawingsUModule - Implant Template
Generic Implant Template 3D ModelsUModule - Implant Template
Generic Implant Template Mating FeaturesUModule - Implant Template
Generic Implant Template Planning LandmarksUModule - Implant Template
SOP CommonMModule - Implant Template
(0008,0005) Specific Character Set1CCode String
(0008,0012) Instance Creation Date3Date
(0008,0013) Instance Creation Time3Time
(0008,0014) Instance Creator UID3Unique Identifier
(0008,0015) Instance Coercion DateTime3Date Time
(0008,0016) SOP Class UID1Unique Identifier
(0008,0018) SOP Instance UID1Unique Identifier
(0008,001A) Related General SOP Class UID3Unique Identifier
(0008,001B) Original Specialized SOP Class UID3Unique Identifier
(0008,001C) Synthetic Data3Code String
(0008,0053) Query/Retrieve View1CCode String
(0008,0110) Coding Scheme Identification Sequence3Sequence
(0008,0123) Context Group Identification Sequence3Sequence
(0008,0124) Mapping Resource Identification Sequence3Sequence
(0008,0201) Timezone Offset From UTC3Short String
(0008,0300) Private Data Element Characteristics Sequence3Sequence
(0018,9004) Content Qualification3Code String
(0018,990C) Referenced Defined Protocol Sequence1CSequence
(0018,990D) Referenced Performed Protocol Sequence1CSequence
(0018,A001) Contributing Equipment Sequence3Sequence
(0020,0013) Instance Number3Integer String
(0020,9172) Conversion Source Attributes Sequence1CSequence
(0028,0303) Longitudinal Temporal Information Modified3Code String
(0040,A390) HL7 Structured Document Reference Sequence1CSequence
(0100,0410) SOP Instance Status3Code String
(0100,0420) SOP Authorization DateTime3Date Time
(0100,0424) SOP Authorization Comment3Long Text
(0100,0426) Authorization Equipment Certification Number3Long String
(0400,0500) Encrypted Attributes Sequence1CSequence
(0400,0561) Original Attributes Sequence3Sequence
(0400,0600) Instance Origin Status3Code String
(2200,0005) Barcode Value3Long Text
(4FFE,0001) MAC Parameters Sequence3Sequence
(FFFA,FFFA) Digital Signatures Sequence3Sequence
Surface MeshCModule - Surface Mesh
Implant Assembly TemplateCIOD
Implant Template GroupCIOD
RT Beams Delivery InstructionCIOD
Ophthalmic Visual Field Static Perimetry MeasurementsCIOD
Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography ImageCIOD
Ophthalmic Thickness MapCIOD
Surface Scan MeshCIOD
Surface Scan Point CloudCIOD
Legacy Converted Enhanced CT ImageCIOD
Legacy Converted Enhanced MR ImageCIOD
Legacy Converted Enhanced PET ImageCIOD
Corneal Topography MapCIOD
Breast Projection X-Ray ImageCIOD
Parametric MapCIOD
Wide Field Ophthalmic Photography Stereographic Projection ImageCIOD
Wide Field Ophthalmic Photography 3D Coordinates ImageCIOD
Tractography ResultsCIOD
RT Brachy Application Setup Delivery InstructionCIOD
Planar MPR Volumetric Presentation StateCIOD
Volume Rendering Volumetric Presentation StateCIOD
Content Assessment ResultsCIOD
CT Performed Procedure ProtocolCIOD
CT Defined Procedure ProtocolCIOD
Protocol ApprovalCIOD
XA Performed Procedure ProtocolCIOD
XA Defined Procedure ProtocolCIOD
Ophthalmic Optical Coherence Tomography En Face ImageCIOD
Ophthalmic Optical Coherence Tomography B-scan Volume AnalysisCIOD
Encapsulated STLCIOD
Encapsulated OBJCIOD
Encapsulated MTLCIOD
RT Physician IntentCIOD
RT Segment AnnotationCIOD
RT Radiation SetCIOD
C-Arm Photon-Electron RadiationCIOD
Tomotherapeutic RadiationCIOD
Robotic-Arm RadiationCIOD
RT Radiation Record SetCIOD
RT Radiation Salvage RecordCIOD
C-Arm Photon-Electron Radiation RecordCIOD
Tomotherapeutic Radiation RecordCIOD
Robotic-Arm Radiation RecordCIOD
RT Radiation Set Delivery InstructionCIOD
RT Treatment PreparationCIOD
Enhanced RT ImageCIOD
Enhanced Continuous RT ImageCIOD
RT Patient Position Acquisition InstructionCIOD
Microscopy Bulk Simple AnnotationsCIOD
Photoacoustic ImageCIOD
Confocal Microscopy ImageCIOD
Confocal Microscopy Tiled Pyramidal ImageCIOD
Basic DirectoryCIOD

Built with by Innolitics, a team of medical imaging software developers.

Data synced with official DICOM standard on 18 April 2024. The DICOM Standard is under continuous maintenance, and the current official version is available at DICOM Parts 3, 4, and 6, © NEMA. Please note that the most recent PDF version of the standard is the official reference, and should checked when making technical decisions.

Instance Creator UID Attribute

TypeOptional (3)
Value Multiplicity1
Value RepresentationUnique Identifier (UI)
Example Values

Uniquely identifies device that created the SOP Instance.


There is no requirement that the Instance Creator UID (0008,0014) be the same as the Device UID (0018,1002) in the General Equipment Module, though they may be.

General Equipment Module

C.7.5.1 General Equipment Module

Table C.7-8 specifies the Attributes of the General Equipment Module, which identify and describe the piece of equipment that produced Composite Instances.

Table C.7-8. General Equipment Module Attributes

Attribute Name



Attribute Description




Manufacturer of the equipment that produced the Composite Instances.

Institution Name



Institution where the equipment that produced the Composite Instances is located.


This Attribute represents the organizational context only for the Equipment IE, and should not be construed to be a substitute for Issuer of Patient ID (0010,0021) or Issuer of Accession Number (0008,0051).

Institution Address



Mailing address of the institution where the equipment that produced the Composite Instances is located.

Station Name



User defined name identifying the machine that produced the Composite Instances.

Institutional Department Name



Department in the institution where the equipment that produced the Composite Instances is located.

Institutional Department Type Code Sequence



A coded description of the type of Department or Service within the healthcare facility.


This might be obtained from a corresponding HL7v2 message containing PV1:10 Hospital Service.

Only a single Item is permitted in this Sequence.

>Include Table 8.8-1 “Code Sequence Macro Attributes”

BCID 7030 “Institutional Department/Unit/Service”.

Manufacturer's Model Name



Manufacturer's model name of the equipment that produced the Composite Instances.

Manufacturer's Device Class UID



Manufacturer's Unique Identifier (UID) for the class of the device.

A class is a manufacturer-specific grouping concept with no DICOM-defined scope or criteria. A class is independent from a marketing-defined make, model or version.

A class allows grouping of devices with a similar set of capabilities.

This Attribute may be multi-valued if this device is a member of more than one class.

Device Serial Number



Manufacturer's serial number of the equipment that produced the Composite Instances.


This identifier corresponds to the device that actually created the images, such as a CR plate reader or a CT console, and may not be sufficient to identify all of the equipment in the imaging chain, such as the generator or gantry or plate.

Software Versions



Manufacturer's designation of software version of the equipment that produced the Composite Instances. See Section C.

Gantry ID



Identifier of the gantry or positioner.

UDI Sequence



Unique Device Identifier (UDI) of the entire equipment. For example, the entire CT Scanner.


  1. Multiple Items may be present if the entire equipment has UDIs issued by different Issuing Authorities.

  2. Multiple Items may be present if multiple pieces of equipment were involved in the creation of this Instance, e.g., the DR plate and the DR reader.

  3. This is not intended to contain the UDIs of the components of the equipment, such as the X-Ray tube of the CT scanner. Such information is stored elsewhere and accessible using the UDI of the entire equipment and a date.

One or more Items are permitted in this Sequence.

>Include Table 10.29-1 “UDI Macro Attributes”

Device UID



Unique identifier of the equipment that produced the Composite Instances.


  1. If present in an SR object, the value is expected to be the same as the (121012, DCM, "Device Observer UID") in TID 1004 “Device Observer Identifying Attributes”.

  2. There is no requirement that the Device UID (0018,1002) be the same as the Instance Creator UID (0008,0014) in the SOP Common Module, though they may be.

Spatial Resolution



The inherent limiting resolution in mm of the acquisition equipment for high contrast objects for the data gathering and reconstruction technique chosen. If variable across the images of the Series, the value at the image center.

Date of Manufacture



The date the equipment that produced the Composite Instances was originally manufactured or re-manufactured (as opposed to refurbished).

Date of Installation



The date the equipment that produced the Composite Instances was installed in its current location. The equipment may or may not have been used prior to installation in its current location.

Date of Last Calibration



Date when the image acquisition device calibration was last changed in any way. Multiple entries may be used for additional calibrations at other times. See Section C. for further explanation.

Time of Last Calibration



Time when the image acquisition device calibration was last changed in any way. Multiple entries may be used. See Section C. for further explanation.

Pixel Padding Value



Single pixel value or one limit (inclusive) of a range of pixel values used in an image to pad to rectangular format or to signal background that may be suppressed or that may be rendered "transparently" when superimposing images. See Section C. for further explanation.

Required if Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) is present and either Pixel Data (7FE0,0010) or Pixel Data Provider URL (0028,7FE0) is present. May be present otherwise only if Pixel Data (7FE0,0010) or Pixel Data Provider URL (0028,7FE0) is present.


  1. The Value Representation of this Attribute is determined by the value of Pixel Representation (0028,0103).

  2. This Attribute is not used in Presentation State Instances; there is no means in a Presentation State to "override" any Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) specified in the referenced images.

  3. This Attribute does apply to RT Dose and Segmentation Instances, since they include Pixel Data.

  4. This Attribute does not apply when Float Pixel Data (7FE0,0008) or Double Float Pixel Data (7FE0,0009) are used instead of Pixel Data (7FE0,0010); Float Pixel Padding Value (0028,0122) or Double Float Pixel Padding Value (0028,0123), respectively, are used instead, and defined at the Image, not the Equipment, level.

  5. Only a single Value is allowed for this Attribute, so it only applies to images with Samples per Pixel (0028,0002) of 1, i.e., images with a Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) of MONOCHROME1, MONOCHROME2 or PALETTE COLOR. See Section C. for details.

C. General Equipment Module Attribute Descriptions


The Attributes Manufacturer (0008,0070), Manufacturer's Model Name (0008,1090) and Device Serial Number (0018,1000) are intended to be a primary identification of the system that produces the data (e.g., modality or workstation application providing the content of the SOP Instance) and not the identification of the component that encodes the SOP Instance (e.g., a commonly used DICOM encoding toolkit).

C. Date of Last Calibration, Time of Last Calibration

Date of Last Calibration (0018,1200) and Time of Last Calibration (0018,1201) are used to convey the date and time of calibration. The Attribute Date of Last Calibration (0018,1200) may be supported alone, however, Time of Last Calibration (0018,1201) Attribute has no meaning unless Attribute Date of Last Calibration (0018,1200) is also supported. The order for each Attribute shall be from the oldest date/time to the most recent date/time. When the Attributes are both supported they shall be provided as pairs.

C. Pixel Padding Value and Pixel Padding Range Limit

Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) is typically used to pad grayscale images (those with a Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) of MONOCHROME1 or MONOCHROME2), or color images with a Photometric interpretation (0028,0004) of PALETTE COLOR, to rectangular format. The native format of some images is not rectangular. It is common for devices with this format to pad the images, to the rectangular format required by the DICOM Standard, with a specific pixel value that is not contained in the native image. Further, when resampling, such as after spatial registration, padding may need to be used to fill previously non-existent pixels.

Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) and Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) are also used to identify pixels to be excluded from the rendering pipeline for other reasons, such as suppression of background air. Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) is defined in the Image Pixel Module.


  1. The "native image" is that which is being padded to the required rectangular format, e.g., the area within the circular reconstruction perimeter of a CT image, or the subset of the rectangular area that contains useful image information, i.e., which is not to be suppressed, or e.g., is that part of a pseudo-colored image that might be superimposed on top of another image. For other mechanisms, see Section N.2.6 “Advanced Blending Transformations” in PS3.4.

  2. The Pixel Padding Value is explicitly described in order to prevent display applications from taking it into account when determining the dynamic range of an image, since the Pixel Padding Value will be outside the range between the minimum and maximum values of the pixels in the native image

  3. No pixels in the native image will have a value equal to Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120).

Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) specifies either a single value of this padding, or when combined with Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121), a range of values (inclusive) that are padding.

The values of Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) and Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) shall be valid values within the constraints defined by Bits Allocated (0028,0100), Bits Stored (0028,0101), and High Bit (0028,0102).

The Pixel Padding Value shall correspond to a value in the original stored pixel data, before the Modality LUT Transformation or any other transformations are applied.

Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) and Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) shall not be present when padding is performed but the pixel value used for padding does occur in the native image.

If Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) is MONOCHROME2 or PALETTE COLOR, Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) shall be less than (closer to or equal to the minimum possible pixel value) or equal to Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121). If Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) is MONOCHROME1, Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) shall be greater than (closer to or equal to the maximum possible pixel value) or equal to Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121).


  1. When the relationship between pixel value and X-Ray Intensity is unknown, it is recommended that the following values be used to pad with black when the image is unsigned:

    • 0 if Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) is MONOCHROME2.

    • 2Bits Stored - 1 if Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) is MONOCHROME1.

    and when the image is signed:

    • -2Bits Stored-1 if Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) is MONOCHROME2.

    • 2Bits Stored-1 - 1 if Photometric Interpretation (0028,0004) is MONOCHROME1.

  2. For projection radiography, when the relationship between pixel value and X-Ray Intensity is known (for example as defined by Pixel Intensity Relationship (0028,1040) and Pixel Intensity Relationship Sign (0028,1041)), it is recommended that a pixel value equivalent to, or rendered similarly to, air (least X-Ray absorbance) be used for padding. However, if such a value may occur in the native image, the Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) Attribute itself should not be present.

    E.g., for an XRF image obtained with an image intensifier, if air is black then a padded perimeter, if any, should also appear black. Typically though, if unpadded, this area would be collimated with a circular collimator, in which case the pixels would appear natively as white (greatest X-Ray absorbance) and a circular shutter would be necessary to neutralize them as black. Whether collimated areas are detected and treated as padded, or neutralized with shutters is at the discretion of the application. See also the Display Shutter Module Section C.7.6.11.

  3. The conditional requirement for the Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) in the Image Pixel Module means that it shall not be present unless Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) is also present.

  4. The range of values to be suppressed between Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) and Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) is specified as being inclusive, that is the values themselves as well as all values between are suppressed.

  5. When Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) is present, but not supported by a rendering application, the constraint that Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) is closest to the "blackest" value, which is typically the most frequently occurring background pixel, will most often result in an acceptable display, permitting "backward compatibility" in the majority of cases.

When modifying equipment changes the Pixel Padding Value in the image, it shall change the values of Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) and Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121), if present. If modifying equipment changes the Pixel Padding Values in the image to values present in the native image, the Attribute Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) and Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) shall be removed.


  1. For example, if a CT image containing signed values from -1024 to 3191 and a Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) of -2000 and a Rescale Intercept (0028,1052) of 0 is converted to an unsigned image with a Rescale Intercept (0028,1052) of -1024 by adding 1024 to all pixels and clipping all more negative pixels to 0, then the padding pixels will be indistinguishable from some of the modified native image pixels, and hence Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) needs to be removed.

  2. If the modification involves lossy compression, which may result in changes to the pixel values, then the application of Pixel Padding Value (0028,0120) and Pixel Padding Range Limit (0028,0121) may result in a different appearance, and hence these Attributes may need different values also.

C. Software Versions

Software Versions (0018,1020) is a multi-valued Attribute. For equipment that is composed of several components, it may be used to identify the name and version for each of those components. This may also include the identifier and version of libraries or configuration files that significantly affect the production of the SOP Instance.