US Multi-frame ImageCIOD
Secondary Capture ImageCIOD
Multi-frame Single Bit SC ImageCIOD
Multi-frame Grayscale Byte SC ImageCIOD
Multi-frame Grayscale Word SC ImageCIOD
Multi-frame True Color SC ImageCIOD
X-Ray Angiographic ImageCIOD
X-Ray Radiofluoroscopic ImageCIOD
RT Structure SetCIOD
Digital X-Ray ImageCIOD
Digital Mammography X-Ray ImageCIOD
Digital Intra-Oral X-Ray ImageCIOD
RT Beams Treatment RecordCIOD
RT Brachy Treatment RecordCIOD
RT Treatment Summary RecordCIOD
VL Endoscopic ImageCIOD
VL Microscopic ImageCIOD
VL Slide-Coordinates Microscopic ImageCIOD
VL Photographic ImageCIOD
Video Endoscopic ImageCIOD
Video Microscopic ImageCIOD
Video Photographic ImageCIOD
VL Whole Slide Microscopy ImageCIOD
Real-Time Video Endoscopic ImageCIOD
Real-Time Video Photographic ImageCIOD
Grayscale Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Color Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Pseudo-Color Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Blending Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Basic Structured DisplayCIOD
XA/XRF Grayscale Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Advanced Blending Presentation StateCIOD
Basic Voice Audio WaveformCIOD
Ambulatory ECGCIOD
Hemodynamic WaveformCIOD
Basic Cardiac Electrophysiology WaveformCIOD
Arterial Pulse WaveformCIOD
Respiratory WaveformCIOD
General Audio WaveformCIOD
Real-Time Audio WaveformCIOD
Basic Text SRCIOD
Enhanced SRCIOD
Comprehensive SRCIOD
Key Object Selection DocumentCIOD
Mammography CAD SRCIOD
Procedure LogCIOD
X-Ray Radiation Dose SRCIOD
Spectacle Prescription ReportCIOD
Macular Grid Thickness and Volume ReportCIOD
Implantation Plan SR DocumentCIOD
Comprehensive 3D SRCIOD
Radiopharmaceutical Radiation Dose SRCIOD
Extensible SRCIOD
Acquisition Context SRCIOD
Simplified Adult Echo SRCIOD
Patient Radiation Dose Structured ReportCIOD
Planned Imaging Agent Administration SRCIOD
Performed Imaging Agent Administration SRCIOD
Rendition Selection DocumentCIOD
Enhanced MR ImageCIOD
MR SpectroscopyCIOD
Enhanced MR Color ImageCIOD
Raw DataCIOD
Enhanced CT ImageCIOD
Spatial RegistrationCIOD
Deformable Spatial RegistrationCIOD
Spatial FiducialsCIOD
Ophthalmic Photography 8 Bit ImageCIOD
Ophthalmic Photography 16 Bit ImageCIOD
Stereometric RelationshipCIOD
Hanging ProtocolCIOD
Encapsulated PDFCIOD
Encapsulated CDACIOD
Real World Value MappingCIOD
Enhanced XA ImageCIOD
Enhanced XRF ImageCIOD
RT Ion Beams Treatment RecordCIOD
Ophthalmic Tomography ImageCIOD
X-Ray 3D Angiographic ImageCIOD
X-Ray 3D Craniofacial ImageCIOD
Breast Tomosynthesis ImageCIOD
Enhanced PET ImageCIOD
Surface SegmentationCIOD
Color PaletteCIOD
Enhanced US VolumeCIOD
Lensometry MeasurementsCIOD
Autorefraction MeasurementsCIOD
Keratometry MeasurementsCIOD
Subjective Refraction MeasurementsCIOD
Visual Acuity MeasurementsCIOD
Ophthalmic Axial MeasurementsCIOD
Intraocular Lens CalculationsCIOD
Generic Implant TemplateCIOD
Implant Assembly TemplateCIOD
Implant Template GroupCIOD
RT Beams Delivery InstructionCIOD
Ophthalmic Visual Field Static Perimetry MeasurementsCIOD
Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography ImageCIOD
Ophthalmic Thickness MapCIOD
Surface Scan MeshCIOD
Surface Scan Point CloudCIOD
Legacy Converted Enhanced CT ImageCIOD
Legacy Converted Enhanced MR ImageCIOD
Legacy Converted Enhanced PET ImageCIOD
Corneal Topography MapCIOD
Breast Projection X-Ray ImageCIOD
Parametric MapCIOD
Wide Field Ophthalmic Photography Stereographic Projection ImageCIOD
Wide Field Ophthalmic Photography 3D Coordinates ImageCIOD
Tractography ResultsCIOD
RT Brachy Application Setup Delivery InstructionCIOD
Planar MPR Volumetric Presentation StateCIOD
PatientMModule - Patient
Clinical Trial SubjectUModule - Patient
General StudyMModule - Study
Patient StudyUModule - Study
Clinical Trial StudyUModule - Study
General SeriesMModule - Series
Clinical Trial SeriesUModule - Series
Presentation SeriesMModule - Series
Frame of ReferenceMModule - Frame of Reference
General EquipmentMModule - Equipment
Enhanced General EquipmentMModule - Equipment
Volumetric Presentation State IdentificationMModule - Presentation State
Volumetric Presentation State RelationshipMModule - Presentation State
Volume CroppingCModule - Presentation State
Presentation View DescriptionMModule - Presentation State
Multi-Planar Reconstruction GeometryMModule - Presentation State
MPR Volumetric Presentation State DisplayMModule - Presentation State
Volumetric Graphic AnnotationUModule - Presentation State
Graphic AnnotationUModule - Presentation State
Graphic LayerCModule - Presentation State
Graphic GroupUModule - Presentation State
Presentation AnimationUModule - Presentation State
(0070,1A01) Presentation Animation Style1Code String
(0070,1A03) Recommended Animation Rate3Double
(0070,1A04) Animation Curve Sequence1CSequence
(0070,150C) Number of Volumetric Curve Points1Unsigned Long
(0070,150D) Volumetric Curve Points1Other Double String
(0070,1A07) Volumetric Curve Up Directions1COther Double String
(0070,1A05) Animation Step Size1CDouble
(0070,1A06) Swivel Range1CDouble
SOP CommonMModule - Presentation State
Common Instance ReferenceMModule - Presentation State
Volume Rendering Volumetric Presentation StateCIOD
Content Assessment ResultsCIOD
CT Performed Procedure ProtocolCIOD
CT Defined Procedure ProtocolCIOD
Protocol ApprovalCIOD
Ophthalmic Optical Coherence Tomography En Face ImageCIOD
Ophthalmic Optical Coherence Tomography B-scan Volume AnalysisCIOD
Encapsulated STLCIOD
Encapsulated OBJCIOD
Encapsulated MTLCIOD
RT Physician IntentCIOD
RT Segment AnnotationCIOD
RT Radiation SetCIOD
C-Arm Photon-Electron RadiationCIOD
Tomotherapeutic RadiationCIOD
Robotic-Arm RadiationCIOD
Basic DirectoryCIOD

Built with by Innolitics, a team of medical imaging software developers.

Data synced with official DICOM standard on 12 May 2020. The DICOM Standard is under continuous maintenance, and the current official version is available at DICOM Parts 3, 4, and 6, © NEMA. Please note that the most recent PDF version of the standard is the official reference, and should checked when making technical decisions.

Volumetric Curve Points Attribute

TypeRequired (1)
Value Multiplicity1
Value RepresentationOther Double String (OD)

Coordinates of points on the curve in the Volumetric Presentation State Reference Coordinate System, in mm. One triplet (x,y,z) shall be present for each point in the curve.

See Section C.11.29.1.


The points on the curve are samples. It is an implementation decision how the points are connected.

Section C.11.29.1

C.11.29.1 Presentation Animation Style

The presence of Presentation Animation Style (0070,1A01) indicates that a form of view animation is intended by the creator of the Presentation State, and the value of the Attribute indicates the nature of such animation. See Section FF.2.4.2 “Volumetric Animation” in PS3.4 for further description of the various presentation animation styles.

Values of Presentation Animation Style (0070,1A01) are:


A number of inputs are displayed sequentially using the same Presentation State. The inputs are described by Items in Volumetric Presentation State Input Sequence (0070,1201) with values of Input Sequence Position Index (0070,1203). If Recommended Animation Rate (0070,1A03) is present, the animation occurs as values of the sequence position index are incremented at a rate specified by Recommended Animation Rate (0070,1A03) in units of steps per second. If Recommended Animation Rate (0070,1A03) is not present, the use of manual scrolling or animation rate is at the discretion of the display application. Inputs with the same Input Sequence Position Index (0070,1203) value are displayed simultaneously. If all values of Input Sequence Position Index (0070,1203) are the same, the presented view is not animated.


The animation is determined by two or more Presentation States sharing the same value of Presentation Sequence Collection UID (0070,1102). The Presentation States shall be applied sequentially in the order of Presentation Sequence Position Index (0070,1103) values as the index is varied at a rate specified by Recommended Animation Rate (0070,1A03) in units of steps per second, if present; otherwise, the use of manual scrolling or animation rate is at the discretion of the display application.


Indicates that the designated Planar MPR view shall be stepped along the curve defined in Animation Curve Sequence (0070,1A04) at the interval specified by Animation Step Size (0070,1A05). The rate is specified by Recommended Animation Rate (0070,1A03) in units of steps per second, if present; otherwise, the use of manual scrolling or animation rate is at the discretion of the display application.


Indicates that the field of view defined by Render Field of View (0070,1606) be stepped along the curve defined in Animation Curve Sequence (0070,1A04) at the rate specified by Recommended Animation Rate (0070,1A03) steps per second. Presentation Animation Style (00070,1A01) value of FLYTHROUGH shall be present only if Render Projection (0070,1602) is present.

Viewpoint LookAt Point (0070,1604) shall coincide with the first point in Volumetric Curve Points (0070,150D, the direction from the Viewpoint Position (0070,1603) to the Viewpoint LookAt Point(0070,1604) shall be tangent to the curve at that point, and the Viewpoint Up Direction (0070,1605) shall be parallel to the first direction cosine in Volumetric Curve Up Directions (0070,1A07).


These conditions ensure the view defined by the Volumetric Presentation State matches the initial view of the animation.

Spacing of curve points in Volumetric Curve Points (0070,150D) shall be chosen such that the angular change between any two consecutive direction cosines in Volumetric Curve Up Directions (0070,1A07) is always less than 90 degress in 3D space, and should be chosen such that the change in curve direction at each point is reasonably small.


This condition and recommendation ensure that the up direction interpolated between points in Volumetric Curve Points (0070,150D) and the direction along the tangent from viewpoint to lookAt point at each step are always unambiguous.

The animation consists of a sequence of dynamically repositioned views that are successively rendered to produce a moving view along a curve through the volume. The curve is specified by the set of discrete points defined by Volumetric Curve Points (0070,150D). The views are at points along the curve determined by Animation Step Size (0070,1A04) and may or may not correspond to Volumetric Curve Points (0070,150D). At each step in the sequence, the viewpoint position, lookAt, and up direction changes as follows:

  • The distance DlookAt is the distance between Viewpoint Position (0070,1603) and Viewpoint LookAt Point (0070,1604), which is a constant throughout the animation.

  • The view lookAt point is initially the first point in Volumetric Curve Points (0070,150D). At each step in the animation, the lookAt point moves on the curve a distance defined by Animation Step Size (0070,1A04) from the previous lookAt point in the direction towards the last point in Volumetric Curve Points (0070,150D).

  • At each lookAt point position:

    • There is a line Ltan tangent to the curve at the currentLookAt point.

    • The viewpoint is a point on Ltan at a distance DlookAt from the lookAt point. The direction from viewpoint to lookAt point is looking forward along the curve, generally toward the next point in Volumetric Curve Points (0070,150D).

    • If the current lookAt point is coincident with a point in Volumetric Curve Points (0070,150D), the up direction is the direction cosine in Volumetric Curve Up Direction (0070,1A07) corresponding to that point. Otherwise, the up direction is the direction interpolated between the two direction cosines in Volumetric Curve Up Directions (0070,1A07) corresponding to the neighboring points in Volumetric Curve Points (0070,150D).

    • The field of view is defined by Render Field of View (0070,1606) relative to the viewpoint coordinate system determined by the current viewpoint, lookAt point, and up direction.


Indicates that the rendered volume rotates around the “swivel axis”, which is defined as the axis parallel to the Viewpoint Up Direction (0070,1605) intersecting the Viewpoint LookAt Point (0070,1604). The rendered volume rotates back and forth in the angular range specified by Swivel Range (0070,1A06) at a rotational frequency specified by Recommended Animation Rate (0070,1A03) in degrees per second. The display application should provide for smooth (rather than abrupt) changes in direction as the swivel approaches the limits of the swivel range. Shall not be used unless Render Projection (0070,1602) is present.


There are no constraints on the value of Swivel Range (0070,1A06). If this value is greater than 360 degrees, it implies that the rendered volume rotates more than one full rotation before changing direction. There is no significance given to negative rather than positive values of Swivel Range (0070,1A06).

CROSSCURVE is permitted only if the following conditions are met:

  • Multi-Planar Reconstruction Style (0070,1501) is present with a value of PLANAR

  • The curve specified by Animation Curve Sequence (0070,1A04) intersects the MPR view defined by MPR View Width Direction (0070,1507), MPR View Width (0070,1508), MPR View Height Direction (0070,1511), MPR View Height (0070,1512), and MPR Top Left Hand Corner (0070,1505) and is approximately normal to it at the point of intersection.

The original MPR Geometry parameters determine the view orientation and extent throughout the animation as follows:

  • The same point on the MPR plane intersects the curve at each step of the animation

  • The MPR x-directional vector remains unchanged from the initial MPR geometry throughout the animation

  • The cross-product of the x-direction vector and y-direction vector is the tangent to the curve at each point.

See Section XXX.3.2 “Spatially Related Views (e.g., Orthogonal)” in PS3.17 for an application of CROSSCURVE.