Computed Radiography ImageCIOD
Nuclear Medicine ImageCIOD
Ultrasound ImageCIOD
Ultrasound Multi-frame ImageCIOD
Secondary Capture ImageCIOD
Multi-frame Single Bit Secondary Capture ImageCIOD
Multi-frame Grayscale Byte Secondary Capture ImageCIOD
Multi-frame Grayscale Word Secondary Capture ImageCIOD
Multi-frame True Color Secondary Capture ImageCIOD
X-Ray Angiographic ImageCIOD
X-Ray Radiofluoroscopic ImageCIOD
RT Structure SetCIOD
Positron Emission Tomography ImageCIOD
Digital X-Ray ImageCIOD
Digital Mammography X-Ray ImageCIOD
Digital Intra-Oral X-Ray ImageCIOD
RT Beams Treatment RecordCIOD
RT Brachy Treatment RecordCIOD
RT Treatment Summary RecordCIOD
VL Endoscopic ImageCIOD
VL Microscopic ImageCIOD
VL Slide-Coordinates Microscopic ImageCIOD
VL Photographic ImageCIOD
Video Endoscopic ImageCIOD
Video Microscopic ImageCIOD
Video Photographic ImageCIOD
VL Whole Slide Microscopy ImageCIOD
Real-Time Video Endoscopic ImageCIOD
Real-Time Video Photographic ImageCIOD
Dermoscopic Photography ImageCIOD
Grayscale Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
PatientMModule - Patient
(0008,1120) Referenced Patient Sequence3Sequence
(0010,0010) Patient's Name2Person Name
(0010,0020) Patient ID2Long String
(0010,0021) Issuer of Patient ID3Long String
(0010,0022) Type of Patient ID3Code String
(0010,0024) Issuer of Patient ID Qualifiers Sequence3Sequence
(0010,0026) Source Patient Group Identification Sequence3Sequence
(0010,0027) Group of Patients Identification Sequence3Sequence
(0010,0020) Patient ID1Long String
(0010,0021) Issuer of Patient ID3Long String
(0010,0024) Issuer of Patient ID Qualifiers Sequence3Sequence
(0010,0028) Subject Relative Position in Image3Unsigned Short
(0018,5100) Patient Position3Code String
(0010,0030) Patient's Birth Date2Date
(0010,0032) Patient's Birth Time3Time
(0010,0033) Patient's Birth Date in Alternative Calendar3Long String
(0010,0034) Patient's Death Date in Alternative Calendar3Long String
(0010,0035) Patient's Alternative Calendar1CCode String
(0010,0040) Patient's Sex2Code String
(0010,0200) Quality Control Subject3Code String
(0010,0212) Strain Description3Unlimited Characters
(0010,0213) Strain Nomenclature3Long String
(0010,0216) Strain Stock Sequence3Sequence
(0010,0218) Strain Additional Information3Unlimited Text
(0010,0219) Strain Code Sequence3Sequence
(0010,0221) Genetic Modifications Sequence3Sequence
(0010,1001) Other Patient Names3Person Name
(0010,1002) Other Patient IDs Sequence3Sequence
(0010,1100) Referenced Patient Photo Sequence3Sequence
(0010,2160) Ethnic Group3Short String
(0010,2201) Patient Species Description1CLong String
(0010,2202) Patient Species Code Sequence1CSequence
(0010,2292) Patient Breed Description2CLong String
(0010,2293) Patient Breed Code Sequence2CSequence
(0010,2294) Breed Registration Sequence2CSequence
(0010,2297) Responsible Person2CPerson Name
(0010,2298) Responsible Person Role1CCode String
(0010,2299) Responsible Organization2CLong String
(0010,4000) Patient Comments3Long Text
(0012,0062) Patient Identity Removed3Code String
(0012,0063) De-identification Method1CLong String
(0012,0064) De-identification Method Code Sequence1CSequence
Clinical Trial SubjectUModule - Patient
General StudyMModule - Study
Patient StudyUModule - Study
Clinical Trial StudyUModule - Study
General SeriesMModule - Series
Clinical Trial SeriesUModule - Series
Presentation SeriesMModule - Series
General EquipmentMModule - Equipment
Presentation State IdentificationMModule - Presentation State
Presentation State RelationshipMModule - Presentation State
Presentation State ShutterMModule - Presentation State
Presentation State MaskMModule - Presentation State
MaskCModule - Presentation State
Display ShutterCModule - Presentation State
Bitmap Display ShutterCModule - Presentation State
Overlay PlaneCModule - Presentation State
Overlay ActivationCModule - Presentation State
Displayed AreaMModule - Presentation State
Graphic AnnotationCModule - Presentation State
Spatial TransformationCModule - Presentation State
Graphic LayerCModule - Presentation State
Graphic GroupUModule - Presentation State
Modality LUTCModule - Presentation State
Softcopy VOI LUTCModule - Presentation State
Softcopy Presentation LUTMModule - Presentation State
SpecimenUModule - Presentation State
SOP CommonMModule - Presentation State
Color Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Pseudo-Color Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Blending Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Basic Structured DisplayCIOD
XA/XRF Grayscale Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Advanced Blending Presentation StateCIOD
Variable Modality LUT Softcopy Presentation StateCIOD
Basic Voice Audio WaveformCIOD
Ambulatory ECGCIOD
Hemodynamic WaveformCIOD
Basic Cardiac Electrophysiology WaveformCIOD
Arterial Pulse WaveformCIOD
Respiratory WaveformCIOD
General Audio WaveformCIOD
Real-Time Audio WaveformCIOD
Routine Scalp ElectroencephalogramCIOD
Sleep ElectroencephalogramCIOD
Multi-channel Respiratory WaveformCIOD
Body Position WaveformCIOD
General 32-bit ECGCIOD
Basic Text SRCIOD
Enhanced SRCIOD
Comprehensive SRCIOD
Key Object Selection DocumentCIOD
Mammography CAD SRCIOD
Procedure LogCIOD
X-Ray Radiation Dose SRCIOD
Spectacle Prescription ReportCIOD
Macular Grid Thickness and Volume ReportCIOD
Implantation Plan SR DocumentCIOD
Comprehensive 3D SRCIOD
Radiopharmaceutical Radiation Dose SRCIOD
Extensible SRCIOD
Acquisition Context SRCIOD
Simplified Adult Echo SRCIOD
Patient Radiation Dose SRCIOD
Planned Imaging Agent Administration SRCIOD
Performed Imaging Agent Administration SRCIOD
Rendition Selection DocumentCIOD
Enhanced X-Ray Radiation Dose SRCIOD
Enhanced MR ImageCIOD
MR SpectroscopyCIOD
Enhanced MR Color ImageCIOD
Raw DataCIOD
Enhanced CT ImageCIOD
Spatial RegistrationCIOD
Deformable Spatial RegistrationCIOD
Spatial FiducialsCIOD
Ophthalmic Photography 8 Bit ImageCIOD
Ophthalmic Photography 16 Bit ImageCIOD
Stereometric RelationshipCIOD
Hanging ProtocolCIOD
Encapsulated PDFCIOD
Encapsulated CDACIOD
Real World Value MappingCIOD
Enhanced XA ImageCIOD
Enhanced XRF ImageCIOD
RT Ion Beams Treatment RecordCIOD
Ophthalmic Tomography ImageCIOD
X-Ray 3D Angiographic ImageCIOD
X-Ray 3D Craniofacial ImageCIOD
Breast Tomosynthesis ImageCIOD
Enhanced PET ImageCIOD
Surface SegmentationCIOD
Color PaletteCIOD
Enhanced US VolumeCIOD
Lensometry MeasurementsCIOD
Autorefraction MeasurementsCIOD
Keratometry MeasurementsCIOD
Subjective Refraction MeasurementsCIOD
Visual Acuity MeasurementsCIOD
Ophthalmic Axial MeasurementsCIOD
Intraocular Lens CalculationsCIOD
Generic Implant TemplateCIOD
Implant Assembly TemplateCIOD
Implant Template GroupCIOD
RT Beams Delivery InstructionCIOD
Ophthalmic Visual Field Static Perimetry MeasurementsCIOD
Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography ImageCIOD
Ophthalmic Thickness MapCIOD
Surface Scan MeshCIOD
Surface Scan Point CloudCIOD
Legacy Converted Enhanced CT ImageCIOD
Legacy Converted Enhanced MR ImageCIOD
Legacy Converted Enhanced PET ImageCIOD
Corneal Topography MapCIOD
Breast Projection X-Ray ImageCIOD
Parametric MapCIOD
Wide Field Ophthalmic Photography Stereographic Projection ImageCIOD
Wide Field Ophthalmic Photography 3D Coordinates ImageCIOD
Tractography ResultsCIOD
RT Brachy Application Setup Delivery InstructionCIOD
Planar MPR Volumetric Presentation StateCIOD
Volume Rendering Volumetric Presentation StateCIOD
Content Assessment ResultsCIOD
CT Performed Procedure ProtocolCIOD
CT Defined Procedure ProtocolCIOD
Protocol ApprovalCIOD
XA Performed Procedure ProtocolCIOD
XA Defined Procedure ProtocolCIOD
Ophthalmic Optical Coherence Tomography En Face ImageCIOD
Ophthalmic Optical Coherence Tomography B-scan Volume AnalysisCIOD
Encapsulated STLCIOD
Encapsulated OBJCIOD
Encapsulated MTLCIOD
RT Physician IntentCIOD
RT Segment AnnotationCIOD
RT Radiation SetCIOD
C-Arm Photon-Electron RadiationCIOD
Tomotherapeutic RadiationCIOD
Robotic-Arm RadiationCIOD
RT Radiation Record SetCIOD
RT Radiation Salvage RecordCIOD
C-Arm Photon-Electron Radiation RecordCIOD
Tomotherapeutic Radiation RecordCIOD
Robotic-Arm Radiation RecordCIOD
RT Radiation Set Delivery InstructionCIOD
RT Treatment PreparationCIOD
Enhanced RT ImageCIOD
Enhanced Continuous RT ImageCIOD
RT Patient Position Acquisition InstructionCIOD
Microscopy Bulk Simple AnnotationsCIOD
Photoacoustic ImageCIOD
Confocal Microscopy ImageCIOD
Confocal Microscopy Tiled Pyramidal ImageCIOD
Basic DirectoryCIOD

Built with by Innolitics, a team of medical imaging software developers.

Data synced with official DICOM standard on 18 April 2024. The DICOM Standard is under continuous maintenance, and the current official version is available at DICOM Parts 3, 4, and 6, © NEMA. Please note that the most recent PDF version of the standard is the official reference, and should checked when making technical decisions.

Group of Patients Identification Sequence Attribute

TypeOptional (3)
Value Multiplicity1
Value RepresentationSequence (SQ)

A Sequence containing the identifiers and locations of the individual subjects whose data was acquired at the same time (as a group) and encoded in this Composite Instance. See Section C.

One or more Items are permitted in this Sequence.

Section C.

C. Groups of Subjects

It is common to image multiple small non-human organisms for pre-clinical research as a group at the same time.

In such cases, the single value of Patient ID (0010,0020) corresponds to the identification of the entire group. The same applies to related Attributes, if present, such as Issuer of Patient ID (0010,0021). Other Attributes of the Patient Module that are present shall be those shared by the entire group of non-human organisms, otherwise they shall be absent or empty (e.g., Patient's Sex (0010,0040)). Any acquisition-related Attributes that are Patient-specific (e.g., injected contrast or radiopharmaceutical dose) shall also be absent or empty (and the information may be communicated in separate acquisition context Instances).

The Group of Patients Identification Sequence (0010,0027) provides a means of describing the identifiers and locations of the individual subjects, if known at the time of acquisition, regardless of whether or not the group images are later segmented into individual images.

It is also common to segment the acquired images of the group of non-human organisms and extract the image pixel data for each non-human organism into separate images.

The Source Patient Group Identification Sequence (0010,0026) provides a "backward reference" within the segmented (individual subject) images to the Patient ID (0010,0020) used to identify the whole group.


  1. Individual derived SOP Instances may reference the source image explicitly by its SOP Instance UID. Additional objects, such as Segmentations, may be created to encode the regions segmented for individual non-human organisms, and referenced from the derived images. See also Annex VVV “Segmentation of Images of Groups of Animals (Informative)” in PS3.17.

  2. For example, an image of a group of 6 mice in a 3 column, 2 row single longitudinal plane array might be described as:

    • Patient ID (0010,0020) = "Inv234_Exp_56_Group78"

    • Issuer of Patient ID (0010,0021) = "MyMouseLab"

    • Group of Patients Identification Sequence (0010,0027)

    • >Patient ID (0010,0020) = "Inv234_Exp_56_Group78_Mouse01"

    • >Issuer of Patient ID (0010,0021) = "MyMouseLab"

    • >Subject Relative Position in Image (0010,0028) = 1\1\1

    • ...

    • >Patient ID (0010,0020) = "Inv234_Exp_56_Group78_Mouse06"

    • >Issuer of Patient ID (0010,0021) = "MyMouseLab"

    • >Subject Relative Position in Image (0010,0028) = 3\2\1

    In this example, the optional Issuer of Patient ID (0010,0021) is shown to emphasize that if it is needed, it should be repeated; i.e., there is no "inheritance" of the issuer from the Data Set enclosing the Sequence.

    The naming of the group and the individual non-human organisms in the identifier is purely illustrative; it is not meant to imply preference for one local convention or another, or for using a discrete identifier for the group as opposed to, say, a concatenated list of individual non-human organism identifiers used as the group identifier.

    See Figure C.7.1.4-1.

  3. For example, segmented images of an individual non-human organism derived from the group image might be described as:

    • Patient ID (0010,0020) = "Inv234_Exp_56_Group78_Mouse04"

    • Issuer of Patient ID (0010,0021) = "MyMouseLab"

    • Source Patient Group Identification Sequence (0010,0026)

    • >Patient ID (0010,0020) = "Inv234_Exp_56_Group78"

    • >Issuer of Patient ID (0010,0021) = "MyMouseLab"

C. Subject Relative Position in Image and Patient Position

Subject Relative Position in Image (0010,0028) shall be encoded as a 3D ordinal position in machine-relative orthogonal dimensions, such that when facing the front of the machine (gantry):

  • the first value starts at one for the left most subject holder and monotonically increases by one for each successive subject holder towards the right,

  • the second value starts at one for the top most subject holder and monotonically increases by one for each successively lower subject holder,

  • the third value starts at one for the outer most subject holder and monotonically increases by one for each successive subject holder inwards (i.e., increasing values from the front to the back of the gantry along the direction orthogonal to the first two dimensions, usually the long axis of the table).


  • The order and sign of the machine-relative directions is consistent with the Axis Definition in [ACR-NEMA 300-1985].

  • Image-relative positions are not used, since there may be multiple acquisitions in different orientations. The machine-relative positions are applicable regardless of whether acquired images are cross-sections or projections.

  • Patient-relative positions are not used, since the non-human organisms may not be arranged in the same direction (e.g., a pair of non-human organisms may be arranged head-to-head).

  • There is no requirement that there be the same number of non-human organisms in each dimension. E.g., one in the top "row"and two below, in one longitudinal plane, would be represented as 1\1\1, 1\2\1, 2\1\1.

  • The goal is to describe only the relative locations of non-human organisms in any form of multiple non-human organism holder ("mouse hotel"), without attempting to specify the exact physical dimensions or absolute locations, regardless of whether the holder is regular or symmetric in any particular dimension or not (e.g., to include "revolver-like" and hexagonal arrangements). Nor is the "distance" between each non-human organism described.

  • The position is defined in terms of subject holders rather than subjects, since some holders may be empty or unused but still partially or completely visible in some of the images. In such cases the relative positions need to be consistently encoded by the acquisition device and recognized by automated segmentation algorithms. E.g., if the top row of in a two row holder is unoccupied, then the non-human organisms in the bottom row will be identified with a row position of 2, not 1.

  • Due to field of view and anatomical region of interest considerations, adjacent non-human organisms may sometimes be partially overlapped (e.g., Cheng TE et al. A rat head holder for simultaneous scanning of two rats in small animal PET scanners: Design, construction, feasibility testing and kinetic validation. Journal of Neuroscience Methods. 2009 Jan 15;176(1):24–33. and Xu S et al. In vivo multiple-mouse imaging at 1.5 T. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2003;49(3):551–7.; such cases may be described as a either a single plane or two planes of non-human organisms, as long as there is sufficient information to identify which non-human organism is which.

    See Figure C.7.1.4-3.

  • The description of the physical relative locations of the non-human organisms does not account for any spatial distortion that may occur in the images due to the acquisition technique used (e.g., aliasing in MRI).

Patient Position (0018,5100) may be used to describe the machine-relative position of each non-human organism when the non-human organisms are not all arranged in the same direction.


  • Patient Position (0018,5100) is used rather than Patient Orientation Code Sequence (0054,0410) because Patient Position (0018,5100) is present in the IODs for those modalities most commonly used for small animal imaging in preclinical research.

  • For example, a pair of prone non-human organisms arranged head-to-head longitudinally along the bore of the machine would be described as:

    • Subject Relative Position in Image = 1\1\1 and Patient Position = HFP

      Subject Relative Position in Image = 1\1\2 and Patient Position = FFP

    See Figure C.7.1.4-2.

The presence of Subject Relative Position in Image (0010,0028) and Patient Position (0018,5100) within Group of Patients Identification Sequence (0010,0027) within the Patient Module implies that the relative locations and orientations of multiple non-human organisms within a group cannot change over time. I.e., a "group", identified by a particular Patient ID (0010,0020) (the unique key of the Patient entity in the Information Model), is defined not only by the non-human organisms that comprise it but also their relative locations and positioning. If the same non-human organisms are imaged together but in a different arrangement, a different Patient ID (0010,0020) for the group shall be used.

Figure C.7.1.4-1. Example of Subject Relative Position in Image for group of 6 mice in a 3 column, 2 row single longitudinal plane array, all feet first prone

Figure C.7.1.4-2. Example of Subject Relative Position in Image and differing Patient Position for group of 2 mice head-to-head

Figure C.7.1.4-3. Example of Subject Relative Position in Image and overlapping narrow field of view group of 2 mice head-to-head